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Osteoclasts

Osteoclasts are unique in their function, but closely related to the macrophage family, cells of the immune system. Therefore, immune related diseases and certain chronic inflammatory processes may influence the osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast functions, often resulting in a loss of bone mass and osteoporosis, or bone lysis.. Osteoclasts are giant cells containing between 10 and 20 nuclei. They closely attach to the bone matrix by binding its surface integrins to a bone protein called vitronectin. This close apposition seals off an area of the bone beneath the osteoclast and allows the osteoclast to form a microenvironment that resorbs bone Osteoclasts are formed in the bone marrow from the same stem cells that form all blood cells. Osteoclast formation and activity increase in response to inactivity and low calcium blood levels.

Osteoclasts are specialized, multinucleated cells that play a vital role in bone development and regeneration. The skeleton is an essential part of the vertebrate body. It provides support for. The osteoclasts are the. Osteoclast, large multinucleated cell responsible for the dissolution and absorption of bone. Bone is a dynamic tissue that is continuously being broken down and restructured in response to such influences as structural stress and the body's requirement for calcium. The osteoclasts are th

Osteoclasts في المَكتبة الوَطنية الأمريكية للطب نظام فهرسة المواضيع الطبية (MeSH). The Life of Osteoclast Animation by Random42 Medical Animation on the role of osteoclasts in bone remodelin The number of osteoclasts in M-CSF knock-out mice was obviously decreased compared with the wild-type mice. M-CSF is an important cytokine for survival, differentiation, cell migration and activity in macrophages and osteoclasts (Wiktor-Jedrzejczak et al., 1990; Kim and Kim, 2016)

Osteoclast - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

  1. Osteoclasts perform the job of breaking down the composite material in bones, with the help of an acid and collagenase proteins. The calcium in the bones acted on by osteoclasts is then sent back into the bloodstream. Osteoclast production is regulated mainly by the thyroid gland..
  2. Osteoblast and osteoclast. The bone remodeling process. In a healthy body, osteoclasts and osteoblasts work together to maintain the balance between bone loss and bone formation
  3. Specialized cells called osteoclasts break down bone to free the calcium. Cells known as osteoblasts deposit calcium into bone, remaking it. The process of replacing old bone with new bone is known as remodeling. Types of Bone Tissue. There are two types of bone tissue. The outer layer of a bone is composed of compact or cortical tissue
  4. Osteoclasts, the cells that break down and reabsorb bone, stem from monocytes and macrophages rather than osteogenic cells.. There is a continual balance between osteoblasts generating new bone and osteoclasts breaking down bone. Key Terms. osteoclast: a large multinuclear cell associated with the resorption of bone
  5. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage that degrade bone. Here, we used lineage tracing studies—labelling cells expressing Cx3cr1, Csf1r or Flt3—to identify.
  6. eral and releases enzymes which dissolve the matrix

The second film in the bone biology series describes the role and functions of the cells responsible for breaking down bone tissue (osteoclasts) and building.. #bonecells#osteoprogenitorcells#osteoblasts#osteocytes#osteoclasts#boneliningcells@med tutorial Osteoclasts break down bone tissue, and along with osteoblasts and osteocytes form the structural components of bone. In the hollow within bones are many other cell types of the bone marrow . Components that are essential for osteoblast bone formation include mesenchymal stem cells (osteoblast precursor) and blood vessels that supply oxygen and.

Osteoclasts are involved in the maintenance of the ruffled borders in the bones. Formation of bone marrow occurs with the help of osteoclasts. Osteoclasts work under the influence of parathyroid hormone (PTH) to dissolve the bone. Osteoclasts produce factors known as clastokines, which influence the working of osteoblasts Osteoclasts are the exclusive cells of bone resorption. Abnormally activating osteoclasts can lead to low bone mineral density, which will cause osteopenia, osteoporosis, and other bone disorders. To date, the mechanism of how osteoclast precursors differentiate into mature osteoclasts remains elusive Osteoclasts are needed to repair bone. Review Date 2/26/2020 Updated by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA Bone is a composite tissue of protein and mineral which undergoes continual remodeling to grow, heal damage, and regulate calcium and phosphate metabolism. This remodeling process is executed by the concerted and sequential effort of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts, acting in what has been termed the basic multicellular unit (BMU) (Figure 1A)

- osteoclasts are found in notches or indentations of bone surfaces called Howship's lacunae; - lacunae are 100 or more microns in length, just bit larger than associated cell, & appear to have been excavated by osteoclast; - osteoclasts contain substantial amounts of the enzyme acid phosphatase Osteoclasts are the cells that degrade bone to initiate normal bone remodeling and mediate bone loss in pathologic conditions by increasing their resorptive activity. They are derived from precursors in the myeloid/ monocyte lineage that circulate in the blood after their formation in the bone marro Bone remodeling requires a balanced interplay of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. While the intercellular signaling that triggers bone cell differentiation is well understood, it remains unclear how bone progenitor cells are recruited to remodeling sites. Various chemokines are upregulated under osteoporotic conditions. However, whether they are involved in progenitor recruitment or instead have. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells of hematopoietic origin and are the primary bone resorbing cells. Numerous osteoclasts are found within the synovial tissue at sites adjacent to bone, creating resorption pits and local bone destruction. They are equipped with specific enzymes and a proton pump t Osteoclasts, derived from hematopoietic precursors, are responsible for bone resorption, whereas osteoblasts, from mesenchymal cells, are responsible for bone formation (see the images below)

IL-4 Inhibits Bone-Resorbing Activity of Mature

Osteoclast: Definition, Function & Formation - Video

Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that derive from monocyte-/macrophage-lineage cells and resorb bone. In contrast, osteoblasts mediate osteoclastogenesis by expressing receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), which is expressed as a membrane-associated cytokine. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble RANKL decoy receptor. rime osteoclasts 15' i6]. Having techniques in hand for gen-erating osteoclasts or isolating these cells from a variety of animals and maintaining them in culture provided us with the opportunity to explore the molecular mechanisms of bone resorption. Our initial efforts established that osteo-clasts degrade both bone mineral and collagen and. Osteoclasts are multinucleated giant cells that resorb bone, ensuring development and continuous remodelling of the skeleton and the bone marrow haematopoietic niche. Defective osteoclast activity. Osteoclasts are large multinucleate cells (cells with more than one nucleus) that differentiate from another type of cell called a macrophage. In normal bone, bone formation and bone resorption are closely coupled processes involved in the normal remodeling of bone. In osteoporosis, the net rate of bone resorption exceeds the rate of bone. OSTEOCLASTS are large cells that dissolve the bone. They come from the bone marrow and are related to white blood cells. They are formed from two or more cells that fuse together, so the osteoclasts usually have more than one nucleus. They are found on the surface of the bone mineral next to the dissolving bone

Osteoclasts were further characterized by assessing their ability to form resorption pits on dentin slices as previously described. 26 Dentin slices were kindly provided by Dr. Kitamura, Hoechst-Marion-Roussel (Kawagoe, Japan). The slices were cleaned by ultrasonication in 70% ethanol and then placed in 96-well plates Osteoclasts Resorb Bone The area of the osteoclast next to bone forms a ruffled border consisting of multiple infoldings of the osteoclast cell membrane. It secretes acid and proteases across the ruffled border, and these dissolve the mineral of bone and destroy the organic matrix (see Figure 9.8 Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells with about 200 nuclei per cell. Many of the osteoclasts comprise around 5 to 20 nuclei per cell. Microvilli are extended from osteoclasts to the bone surface, forming a brush-like structure at the active sites of bone resorption.The acid phosphatases secreted by the osteoclasts dissolve both collagen, calcium, and phosphorus in the bone Osteoclasts form by the fusion of CD14 + monocyte or macrophage precursors, in the presence of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), to produce mature multinucleated cells. 12,13 The mature osteoclasts then attach to mineralized bone and acidify the extracellular.

What are Osteoclasts? - Medical New

Osteoclasts are multinucleated giant cells formed by the fusion of precursor cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, which originate from hematopoietic stem cells and are uniquely responsible for in vivo bone resorption . Bone destruction is marked in rheumatoid arthritis,. Bone metabolism is a dynamic process that balances bone formation and bone resorption. central to this process is the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway. bone formation. performed by stimulating osteoblasts and inhibiting osteoclasts. bone resorption. performed by active osteoclast. stimulated by RANKL in normal process Osteoclasts Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells that are of the macrophage lineage. They resorb bone by secreting organic acids, which dissolve hydroxyapatite, and lysosomal enzymes, which break down the osteoid matrix. At the bone surface, osteoclasts lie in Howship's lacunae, surface depressions caused by the resorption of bone INTRODUCTION. Bone mass is maintained by coordinating the activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts with bone-forming osteoblasts (1-4).Accordingly, an imbalance of bone remodeling arising as a consequence of increased osteoclast activity leads to bone-wasting states in diseases ranging from osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis to periodontitis and bone metastasis (1-3)

Osteoclast cell Britannic

Osteoclasts are cells of hematopoietic origin with a unique property of dissolving bone; their inhibition is a principle for treatment of diseases of bone loss. Protocols for generation of human osteoclasts in vitro have been described, but they often result in cells of low activity, raising questions on cell phenotype and suitability of such assays for screening of bone resorption inhibitors Osteoclasts (OCLs) are key players in controlling bone remodeling. Modifications in their differentiation or bone resorbing activity are associated with a number of pathologies ranging from osteopetrosis to osteoporosis, chronic inflammation and cancer, that are all characterized by immunological alterations. Therefore, the 2000s were marked by the emergence of osteoimmunology and by a growing.

ناقضة العظم - ويكيبيدي

Osteoclasts are also important for cortical development: if osteoclast-mediated invasion and destruction of the cartilage model is defective, cortical bone development is delayed. An example of this is in the syndrome of osteopetrosis, caused either by a lack of osteoclasts or by defective osteoclast activity Osteoclasts: Bone cells that break down and remove bone tissue. Mentioned in: Bone Grafting , Osteoporosi

Osteoblast-Osteoclast Interaction

Bone Cells Lesson for Kids | Study

A Quick Comparison of Osteoblast Vs

What are Osteoblasts

During bone resorption, the osteoclast must sustain an extraordinarily low pH environment, withstand immense ionic pressures, and coordinate nutrient and waste exchange across its membrane to sustain its unique structural and functional polarity. To achieve this, osteoclasts are equipped with an elaborate set of membrane transport proteins (pumps, transporters and channels) that serve as. Bone remodeling is a continuous process that is necessary for the maintenance of a healthy skeleton. The remodeling preferentially occurs in bones that have lost structural integrity resulting in resorption of existing bone by osteoclasts, followed by synthesis of new bone by the osteoblasts [1, 2].Two kinds of remodeling have been suggested [], each with a different purpose

This study demonstrates that osteoclasts derive largely from CD14-positive monocytes. Keywords: osteoclasts, bone resorption, CD14, calcitonin receptor, vitronectin receptor. The osteoclast derives from a haemopoietic precursor. It is defined as a cell which co-expresses the vitronectin (VN) and calcitonin (CT) receptors (R) and produces tartrate In osteoclasts, ACTB, B2M, HMBS and HPRT1 were also the most stably expressed genes leaving 18S and GAPDH as the most variably expressed. On average, the stability values of the candidate reference genes in osteoclasts were smaller in magnitude compared to those observed in osteoblasts indicating greater overall expression stabilities

Infantile malignant osteopetrosis (IMO) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by non-functional osteoclasts and a fatal outcome early in childhood. About 50% of patients have mutations in the TCIRG1 gene. IMO iPSCs were generated from a patient carrying a homozygous c.11279G>A (IVS18+1) mutation in TCIRG1 and transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing human TCIRG1 Osteolytic bone disease affects 80% of multiple myeloma (MM) patients, with negative impact on both quality of life and overall survival. 1 A bidirectional prosurvival regulatory loop exists between osteoclasts (OCs) and MM cells in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. 2 In addition to their major function in bone remodeling, OCs have been recently implicated in multiple complex functions. 3. Osteoclasto que exhibe muchos núcleos dentro de su citoplasma espumoso. El osteoclasto es una célula multinucleadas, móvil y gigante que degrada, reabsorbe y remodela huesos. Al igual que el osteoblasto, está implicado en la remodelación de hueso natural. Deriva de células hematológicas Osteoclast. De Viquipèdia. Salta a la navegació Salta a la cerca. Micrografia d'un osteoclast que presenta característiques típiques de distinció: una gran cel·la amb múltiples nuclis i un citosol escumós. Un osteoclast és una cèl·lula que forma part del sistema fagocític mononuclear i que deriva de les cèl·lules mare.

Osteoblasts, Osteoclasts, Calcium, and Bone Remodeling

Osteoclast apoptosis is regulated by estrogens. With estrogen deficiency, the osteoclasts live longer and are therefore able to resorb more bone. In response to the increased bone resorption, there is increased bone formation and a high-turnover state develops which leads to bone loss and perforation of the trabecular plates Osteoclasts are derived from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells that differentiate into myeloid stem cells. Myeloid stem cells differentiate into four kinds of cells, namely megakaryocytes, granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, and osteoclasts. Myelocytic series is differentiated from stem cells to form the granulocyte-macrophage colony-formin A. Monocytes are precursor cells of osteoclasts B. The plasma membrane of osteoclasts adjacent to bone that is being resorbed is known as striated or ruffled border C. Contain lysosomes with acid phosphates D. All of the above are tru

Differentiated osteoclasts with a podosome belt also formed the zipper-like structure at the cell contact site during cell fusion. The breakdown of the cell contact site resulted in the fusion of the podosome belts following plasma membrane fusion. Additionally, osteoclasts in mouse calvariae formed the zipper-like structure in the sealing zone Osteoclasts, which are abundant in the bone tissue, are multinuclear cells derived from myeloid lineage [1, 2].Osteoclasts are known to initiate physiologic bone remodeling during bone growth, tooth eruption and fracture healing, and also are able to mediate bone loss in pathologic conditions, such as bone cancer metastasis [3, 4].Therefore, inhibition of osteoclasts is a potential target for. Osteoclasts have a ruffled border and are multinucleated. However, the loss of function in osteoclasts, problems with their differentiation, and decrease in their number lead to bone osteosclerosis (abnormal hardening of the bone and an increase in bone density)/osteopetrosis (failure of osteoclasts to resorb bone)

38.2B: Cell Types in Bones - Biology LibreText

Erythromyeloid progenitors give rise to a population of

Osteoclasts are involved in bone remodeling, a normal process in which old bone is removed and new bone is created to replace it. Bones are constantly being remodeled, and the process is carefully controlled to ensure that bones stay strong and healthy. ClC-7 channels help regulate the relative acidity (pH) of osteoclasts Inside the spongy bone resides cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Osteoclast CONSUME bone and osteoblasts BUILD bone. Normally, osteoblasts and osteoclasts work at the same rate. However, in osteoporosis the osteoclasts start to outwork the osteoblasts. This disease suddenly sneaks up on a patient (in most cases without signs and symptoms) Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. L' osteoclasto è una cellula molto grande, polinucleata ( sincizio) e ricca di lisosomi. Appartiene alla linea dei monociti-macrofagi, deriva cioè dalla cellula mesenchimale emopoietica. Presenta molte estroflessioni ed increspature nella membrana plasmatica, in posizione basale, chiamato orletto striato The number of osteoclasts in the NO D 5 group was significantly higher than the other groups (p <0.05). Conclusions: The number of osteoblasts on the tension side was not affected by the hypofunctional state but decreased the number of osteoclasts on the pressure side during orthodontic tooth movement

Pathology Outlines - Osteoclast

Osteopetrosis, also known as Albers-Schönberg disease or marble bone disease, is an uncommon hereditary disorder that results from defective osteoclasts.Bones become sclerotic and thick, but their abnormal structure actually causes them to be weak and brittle. There are two separate subtypes of osteopetrosis Osteoclasts seeded on either glass coverslips or apatite pellets have at least two morphologically distinct substrate adhesion sites: actin-based adhesion structures including podosome belts and sealing zones, and adjacent clathrin sheets. Clathrin-coated structures are exclusively localized at the podosome belts and sealing zone, in both of. Osteoclast definition is - any of the large multinucleate cells closely associated with areas of bone resorption The set of journals have been ranked according to their SJR and divided into four equal groups, four quartiles. Q1 (green) comprises the quarter of the journals with the highest values, Q2 (yellow) the second highest values, Q3 (orange) the third highest values and Q4 (red) the lowest values. The SJR is a size-independent prestige indicator.

Osteoporosis is a complex disease with a strong genetic contribution. A recently published genome-wide association study (GWAS) for estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) identified 1103 independent genome-wide significant association signals. Most of these variants are non-coding, suggesting that regulatory effects may drive many of the associations Osteoclast definition, one of the large multinuclear cells in growing bone concerned with the absorption of osseous tissue, as in the formation of canals. See more

Comparison of normal and osteoporotic bone architecture

Osteoclasts expressed higher levels of Ctsk and Atp6v0d2 than osteomorphs (Figure 7C). Interestingly, 151 of the 581 (26%) genes upregulated by osteomorphs were not upregulated by osteoclasts (Figure 7F). This suggests that these two triple-positive cell populations, while similar on one level, are distinct on another. These data demonstrate. Bone deficits are frequent complications observed in HIV-1-infected patients. Our study demonstrates that HIV-1 infects osteoclasts, the cells specialized in bone degradation, using different models including HIV-1-infected humanized mice. We decipher the cellular mechanisms by which HIV-1 contributes to enhanced bone degradation in human osteoclasts, showing that the virus modifies the.

Osteoclasts play a key role in bone resorption , which is usually accelerated in patients with osteoporosis . Therefore, inhibition of the proliferation of osteoclasts is considered as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of osteoporosis [19, 20]. It is known that the proliferation of osteoclasts can be regulated by lncRNAs Osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing cells, play a pivotal role in skeletal development and adult bone remodeling. They also participate in the pathogenesis of various bone disorders Osteoclasts are thought to belong to a macrophage lineage. However, the nature of common precursors of osteoclasts and macrophages remains to be investigated. We have characterized the differentiation potential of mouse bone marrow macrophages into mature osteoclasts. Monocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) stimulated the.

Pathology Outlines - Paget disease

Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts - YouTub

Osteoclastsの意味や使い方 **** 音声 シソーラス 共起表現 Scholar, Entrez, Google, WikiPedia 破骨細胞関連語odontoclast, osteoclastic同義語(異表記)Cement... - 約1175万語ある英和辞典・和英辞典。発音・イディオムも分かる英語辞書 The osteoclasts present in three of four central giant cell granulomas of the mandible Paraffin-embedded and frozen sections from osteoclastomas were also positive for gelatinase B expression. These neoplasms (giant cell tumors) were reacted with a rabbit antiserum against are similar but not identical to the long bone giant cell tumors. Osteoclasts act upon osteoblast lineage cells throughout their differentiation by facilitating growth factor release from resorbed matrix, producing secreted proteins and microvesicles, and expressing membrane-bound factors. These multiple mechanisms mediate the coupling of bone formation to resorption in remodeling Substrate Adhesion Regulates Sealing Zone Architecture and Dynamics in Cultured Osteoclasts Authors. Keywords - Journal. PLoS One Volume 6, Issue 12, Pages e28583 Publisher. Public Library of Science (PLoS) Online. 2011-12-06 DOI. 10.1371/journal.pone.0028583.

Osteoporosis after Spinal Cord Injury - SCIRE Community

Osteoclasts originated from bone marrow macrophages play a critical role in excessive bone resorption during bone loss. ROS have been reported to affect the differentiation and function of osteoclasts, but how this occurs is not well known yet. The aim of this Special Issue is to broaden our understanding of the biochemical, cellular, and. Osteoclasts synonyms, Osteoclasts pronunciation, Osteoclasts translation, English dictionary definition of Osteoclasts. n. 1. A large multinucleate cell found in growing bone that resorbs bony tissue, as in the formation of canals and cavities. 2. An instrument used in.. Differentiated osteoclasts were plated on either glass (B, E, and H), dentin (C-F), or apatite (D, G, and I); scanning electron microscopy images of osteoclasts adherent on their respective substratum are shown (B-D). Mature osteoclasts adherent on glass are large flat cells with a swollen area at site of podosome belt (B, inset) Increased myelopoiesis is a hallmark of many chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms involved in the myeloid skewing of hematopoiesis upon inflammation are still incompletely understood. Here, we identify an unexpected role of bone-resorbing osteoclasts in promoting hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) proliferation and differentiation towards myeloipoiesis in the early phases of. bone-resorption osteoclasts (OCs) of myeloid lineage [24]. Together with the extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) [25-28], bone resident cells interact with MM cells to promote tumor growth, survival, immune suppression, and resistance to chemotherapy [17, 19, 29-31]. These complex interactions result in osteolyti

Osteopontin signaling in osteoclasts. Osteopontin is an RGD-containing bone matrix protein which plays a key role in osteoclast activation and function. Osteopontin binds through its alpha-V/beta-3 integrin receptor on the osteoclast plasma membrame and provides osteoclasts attachment to bone surface . Also it can bind to CD44 surface receptor a cell that is involved in the destruction and resorption of bone tissue in vertebrate animals and man. An osteoclast contains from three to several dozen nuclei and a great many lysosomes, whose hydrolytic enzymes upon release from the osteoclasts resorb the mineral matrix of bone and calcified cartilage Overactivation and excessive differentiation of osteoclasts (OCs) has been implicated in the course of bone metabolism-related diseases. Although fullerenol nanoparticles (fNPs) have been suggested to inhibit OC differentiation and OC function in our previous work, systemic studies on the effect of fNPs on

Osteopetrosis - Pediatrics - Orthobullets

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Start Over You searched for: Subject osteoclasts Remove constraint Subject: osteoclasts 1 - 5 of 5. Sort by relevance. relevance display name. Number of results to display per page. 10 per page per page. 10 per page 20 per page 50 per page 100 per page. Search Results. 1 Abstract. Osteoclasts are large multinucleated cells exquisitely adapted to resorb bone matrix. Like other eukaryotes, osteoclasts possess an elaborate ensemble of intracellular organelles through which solutes, proteins and other macromolecules are trafficked to their target destinations via membrane-bound intermediaries. During bone resorption, membrane trafficking must be tightly regulated. We observed a significant inhibition of osteoclasts apoptosis secondary to exposure to breast cancer cells-derived factors. This effect was not reversed with bisphosphonates. The pro-apoptotic protein BIM in osteoclasts was a target of modulation by breast cancer cells-derived factors Osteoclasts resorb bone by producing protons and acid hydrolase via lysosomal secretion, however, a detailed mechanism remains elusive. PMEPA1 is a vesicular membrane protein, which binds to the NEDD4 family member of ubiquitin ligases. We have previously reported that Pmepa1 is highly expressed in bone resorbing osteoclasts, and regulates bone.

Correction for 'Modulated podosome patterning in osteoclasts by fullerenol nanoparticles disturbs the bone resorption for osteoporosis treatment' by Kui Chen et al., Nanoscale, 2020, 12, 9359-9365, DOI: 10.1039/D0NR01625J Bone fracture healing is a complex, dynamic process that involves various cell types, with osteoclasts and osteoblasts playing indispensable roles. In this study, we found that psoralen, the main active ingredient in Psoralea corylifolia L . fruit extract, enhanced bone fracture healing through activation of osteoclast and osteoblast activity. SPI1. STAT1. SYK. VCAM1. SQSTM1. PAPSS2. GAB2. *Darkness represents the genes rank within the SuperPath, via the multiplicity of each gene in the constituent pathways. STRING interaction network for RANK Signaling in Osteoclasts SuperPath OSTEOCLASTS AND AP1 ACTIVITY. The generation of multiple knockout mice affecting AP1 signalling pathways has permitted a more complete dissection of AP1 regulation in osteoclasts. RANKL is a known inducer of JNKs, which phosphorylate the Jun component of AP1. IFNγ was also shown to block RANKL induced JNK activation

PPT - Hormonal regulation of calcium and phosphorus